Bebia S. M. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use
How to cite: Bebia S. M. Forest resources of the Caucasian Black Sea coast: problems and prospects of rational use // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zurnal (Siberian Journal of Forest Science). 2015. N. 1: 9–24 (in Russian with English abstract).
© Bebia S. M., 2015
More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC) forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and composition of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and I suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira) at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of 1750 m3/ha, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng in the same crop forms 1478 m3/ha, Liquidambar styraciflua L. 1000 m3/ha, Liriodendron tulipifera L. forms 852 m3/ha. The most productive local tree species Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach of 50 year age forms a tree stand with timber stock of 350 m3/ha. It is noted that the negative impact on the state of forests and forestry in the region has a significant impact on management of forest resources, as well as global climate change of the planet, and example of which is desiccation of fir forests as a result of climate warming. For efficient use of forest resources, an environmentally and socio-economically sound development strategy for the forest industry in the region must be developed.