Orlovskiy S. N., Kukhar I. V. The Technology of Layer-Specific Rotary Soil Cultivation for Forest Crops and Equipment for its Implementation
How to cite: Orlovskiy S. N.1, Kukhar I. V.2 The technology of layer-specific rotary soil cultivation for forest crops and equipment for its implementation // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zhurnal (Siberian Journal of Forest Science). 2017. N. 3: 74–80 (in Russian with English abstract).
© Orlovskiy S. N., Kukhar I. V., 2017
Influence of existing methods and technologies of soil processing for forest crops on establishment and growth of cultivated tree species was studied. It was found that furrow plough processing of soil can interfere with the cultivated trees’ ecological peculiarities, because the furrow floor, where trees are planted, often constitutes the lower part of the turf or the upper part of the ashen-gray layers having unfavorable water-physical conditions and decreased crop-producing power. Whenever conifer trees grow on the bottom of a furrow excavated in medium and heavy clay loam, their growth is significantly decreased and accompanied by remarkable changes in morphology. Processing of shallow humus thickness soil with multiple cutter results in mixing of A0, A1 and A2 (ashen-gray) layers. Consequently, the processed horizon obtains a lower amount of fertile substances than the vegetable soil on non-processed places. An apparatus for graded soil tillage, its construction, working principle and usage technology are described. The major peculiarity of the device consists in the ability not to crumbl the soil, but to shake down vegetable earth cut by subsurface plow from beneath. The technology involves removing roots and grass outside cultivated land, so that it cannot be then overgrown with weeds. It was found that exploitation of the device improves soil pulverization quality, enhances percentage of separates less than 10 mm and 10–50 mm, decreases content of the separate larger than 50 mm, and reduced specific energy output almost three-fold. Vertical displacement of control particles while soil processing with common cutter machines and the suggested device was studied. Establishment and growth of Siberian pine was determined in experimental productive cultures at different planting technologies. It was shown that under the suggested technology, forest plants furrow sowing can be done while soil processing, so that making nurseries becomes unnecessary, and cleaning, ploughing furrows, planting and further tending seedlings are not needed. Soil layers are not mixed, as within usual tillage. Rich soil layer is not withdrawn, so that germination ability of target seeds increases, and growth of seedlings in enhanced. The entire process takes much less energy compared to traditional technologies. Application of the device increases the quality of forest regeneration and reduces labor input owing to the new technology.