Milyutin L. I. Study of Siberian Forest Genetic Resources
How to cite: Milyutin L. I. Study of Siberian forest genetic resources // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zurnal (Siberian Journal of Forest Science). 2016. N. 3: 3–9 (in Russian with English abstract).
© Milyutin L. I., 2016
Forest genetic resources are the aggregate of genofonds of native and cultivar populations of forest woody plants, valuable really or potential for specific territory (A brief dictionary… 2014). Forest genetic resources are studied in practice in most cases on example of forest-forming woody plants. It is necessary to consider of study of these resources in two positions: taxonomic and geographic. Forest forming coniferous species are studied best of all from the taxonomic point of view taking into account biodiversity. Genetic polymorphism is studied most in detail with such species as Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica, Larix sukaczevii, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica. Populations of Larix gmelinii, Larix cajanderi, Picea ajanensis are studied considerable worse. Materials about genetic polymorphism of forest forming foliage species – representative of genera Betula and Populus are absent. Caryological polymorphism is studied sufficiently well in all Siberian conifer species. It should be noted especially attached to examination of this problem, that individuals with B-chromosome were discovered first by gymnosperms as an example Picea obovata. Discovery in Siberia of triploid asp deserve special attention. Geographic variability is shown most broadly in the investigations of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica. These investigations were conducted both in natural populations and in provenance trials. Such investigations of another conifer and foliage species either are shown by separate fragments or are absent at all Geographic variability is shown in a large measure in the operative forest seed sources regionalization. Numerous investigations directed to the analysis of morphological variability are conducted by all forest forming species in the first place by conifers. Questions of hereditary determination of either signs remain in this problem. Similar questions concern the variability of other signs: phonological peculiarities, resin productivity etc. It can be noted from the geographic point of view. General typical peculiarity for all species: best study of forest genetic resources in the south regions and worse study in the north regions. This fact concerns all species with the exception of Larix cajanderi, which does not grow in the south regions of Siberia. Noted regularity is explained simply of more difficult availability of forests in the north Siberian regions. Certainly the north forests are characterized as a general rule by bad productivity, but they have great ecological importance. Besides that, north forests are represented in most cases by autochthonous stands that raise value of their genetic resources. It is necessary to note too that investigations of species of woody plants near the north edge of their range (by south range edge, too) are an important component of the adaptive breeding of their species. It is necessary to take into account by analysis of Siberian forest genetic resources specifics of different types of woody plants populations: isolated insular populations outside the main areas, hybrid populations in the zones of natural intraspecific hybridization etc.