Nechaev V. A., Nechaev A. A. The Birds-Consumers of the Fruits and Disseminators of Phellodendron Rupr. Seeds in the South of Russian Far East
How to cite: Nechaev V. A.1, Nechaev A. A.2 The birds-consumers of the fruits and disseminators of Phellodendron Rupr. seeds in the south of Russian Far East // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zurnal (Siberian Journal of Forest Science). 2016. N. 1: 64–70 (in Russian with English abstract).
© Nechaev V. A., Nechaev A. A., 2016
Based on the results of the long-term investigation, carried out in the Russian Far East (Primorye and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur and Sakhalin regions), and published data about bird ecology, the actual material about the birds feeding seeds and berries of the Amur cork-tree, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis (Fr. Schmidt) Sarg., is given in the article. It has been found 43 carpophagous bird species from 15 families and 6 orders. The cork-tree berries, small roundish juicy fruits with little stones, are eaten by the birds of 30 species from 13 families; basically by Grey-headed Woodpecker – Picus canus, Azure-winged Magpies – Cyanopica cyanus, Bohemian and Japanaese Waxwings – Bombycilla garrulus and B. japonica, Thrushes: Pale Thrush – Turdus pallidus, Eyebrowed Thrush – Turdus obscurus, Grey-backed Thrush – T. hortulorum, Naumann's Thrush – T. naumanni, and Dusky Thrush – T. eunomus, Eurasian Nuthatch – Sitta europaea, Pallas's Rose Finch – Carpodacus roseus. The secondary birds – 16 species. On the Sakhalin isl. the Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis berries are eaten by the birds of 33 species from 12 families, on the South Kuriles (Kunashir isl.) – by the birds of 28 species from 11 families. On Sakhalin the berries are eaten basically by the Waxwings (2 species), Dusky and Brown-headed – Turdus chrysolaus – Thrushes, Eurasian Nuthatch, Pallas's Rose Finch; and secondary birds – 12 species. There are 5 species of the primary birds and 8 species of the secondary birds on the Kunashir isl. A participation of the birds in the dissemination of the cork-tree, Phellodendron Rupr., during seasonal migrations in winter and autumn has been considered. The active birds in the seed distribution are Grey-headed Woodpecker, Azure-winged Magpies, Waxwings, Thrushes and others; while they are eating the berries, the seeds are not damaged in the gastrointestinal tract and pushed with the excrements outside. In addition, Eurasian Nuthatches and Tits actively distribute the seeds, making stocks under the tree bark and in the semihollows. The passive agents of dissemination are Hazel Grouse – Tetrastes bonasia, Common Pheasant – Phasianus colchicus, Great Spotted Woodpeckers – Dendrocopos major, Oriental Tutle Doves – Streptopelia orientalis, Pallas's Rose Finches, Hawfinches – Coccothraustes coccothraustes and some others, who can crack hard seed peel by the peckers, but some part of the seed peels retain undamaged in the gastrointestinal tract and is pushed outside. The main role in the cork-tree dissemination belongs to the migrants and wintering birds – woodpeckers, azure-winged magpies, thrushes and waxwings, distributing seeds on the feeding places and transferring them on the different distances from the areas of the plant growing.