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Opalko O. A., Konopelko A. V., Opalko А. I. An Apple Malus Mill. in the History and Culture of the Ukrainian and Other Ethnoces

DNA sequence, mystical rites and ceremonies, lexeme, molecular genetic analysis, phytonym, folklore, ethnobotany, Rosaceae


UDC 398.345:58.006:581.6:634.11

How to cite: Opalko O. A., Konopelko A. V., Opalko А. I. An apple Malus Mill. in the history and culture of the Ukrainian and other ethnoces // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zurnal (Sib. J. For. Sci.). 2019. N. 4. P. 18–35 (in Russian with English abstract).

DOI: 10.15372/SJFS20190403

© Opalko O. A., Konopelko A. V., Opalko А. I., 2019

Ethnobotanical data on the apple tree (Malus Mill., family Rosaceae Juss. subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., tribe Maleae Small, subtribe Malinae Rev.) are investigated. Scientific papers published in different countries of the world, works of ancient and modern authors, as well as folklore sources devoted to the «apple» and «apple tree» phytonyms are discussed. The publications relating to their cognitive classification, names and comprehension of the common folk and metaphorical interpretation of denominations and a wide variety of connotative meanings in Ukrainian and other culturally relevant traditions, also mystical rites and ceremonies are studied. the views on the use of apple as a food, ornamental and medicinal plant are presented. The scheme of t pomebearing plant genome (Malinae) formation proposed by a number of biologists from several universities of the USA, Canada and Sweden based on the results of molecular genetic analyses of the 88 genera of Rosaceae family is considered. The scheme of the identification of the relationships in the Malinae included molecular analysis of six nuclear (18S, gbssi1, gbssi2, ITS, pgipandppo) and four chloroplast (matK, ndhF, rbcL and trnL-trnF) DNA sequences. In particular, the hypothesized origin of the Malinae genome from a genus Gillenia Moench (subfamily Amygdaloideae) is reasoned by the auto polyploidization of some Gillenia ancestor and subsequent nullisomy (x = 9 → x = 18 → 2n = 36 – 2 → x = 17). The necessity to use as a scientific name concerning apple cultivars cultivated in orchards nomen Malus pumila Mill.instead of formerly commonly used name Malus domestica Borkh is substantiated. Due to their blossoming, crabapple cultivars can be included in the collective species Malus × gloriosa Lemoine. The phenomenon of diversity of common names for apple in regional dialects of the Ukrainian and other languages as well as the phenomenon of various uses of the lexeme «apple» in the world art (poetry and prose, music and songs, myths and legends) are considered. The Malus spp. collection of the National Dendrological Park «Sofiyivka» of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the prospects of its use in the park landscaping are discussed.

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