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Panta M., Mandal R. A. Impact of Climate Change on Phenology of Rhododendron arboretum Sm., Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don and Alnus nepalensis D. Don


1 Lord Buddha College

Tokha Muncipality-15, Mahadevtar, Kathmandu, Nepal

2 Pokhara University, School of Environmental Science and Management

Devkota Sadak, Mid Baneshwor, PO Box 2453, Kathmandu, Nepal


temperature, rainfall, season, monsoon, growth, height, flowering, fruiting, forest vegetation, phenology dynamics, Nepal


UDC 581.5:582.091/093:630*1

How to cite: Panta M.1, Mandal R. A.2 Impact of climate change on phenology of Rhododendron arboretum Sm., Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don and Alnus nepalensis D. Don // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zurnal (Sib. J. For. Sci.). 2019. N. 4. P. 68–79 (in English with Russian abstract).

DOI: 10.15372/SJFS20190407

© Panta M., Mandal R. A., 2019

This study was objectively carried out to show the trend of climatic variables to determine the effect of climatic variables on seasons and assess the response of phenology of a tree rhododendron Rhododendron arboretum Sm., kaphal Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don and the Nepalese alder Alnus nepalensis D. Don at Bakte, Devithan and Nagarkot forests of Kavreplanchok district, Nepal. Climatic data such as rainfall and temperature from 1947 to 2016, were collected. Maps of selected sites were prepared and stratified into tree rhododendron, kaphal and Nepalese alder block. Altogether 60 samples having 10 × 10 m were collected from different directions (South, North, East and West). The diameter and height of seedlings were recorded and temperature was registered between February 18 to March 15, 2018. The total of 50 households was surveyed to get familiar with the ideas about climate change and its impacts on phenology. The result showed the highest average annual temperature around 17.41 C in 2012, while rainfall was recorded highest about 2345.5 mm in 1985. The estimated highest monsoon temperature was 22.61 C in 2012 and the lowest 8.93 C in winter 1997. The (1947-2016) winter rainfall shows increasing by 0.05 mm but monsoon rainfall is decreasing by 2.99 mm annually. Direct measurements of temperature for 26 days showed the highest 26.5 C on March 14 and the lowest 21.8 C in February 18 2018. The highest number of flowers of tree rhododendron and kaphal was found in southern aspect. The flowering started 15-30 days earlier its normal date, which was also confirmed by local people. Height growth of seedlings of tree rhododendron was 1.5 cm at southern aspect. This research will be useful for science community and policy makers.

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