Shishikin A. S., Efimov D. Yu., Murzakmatov R. T. Biological Resources of Coal Dumps (on the Example of Borodinskiy Coal Mine)
How to cite: Shishikin A. S., Efimov D. Yu., Murzakmatov R. T. Biological resources of coal dumps (on the example of Borodinskiy coal mine) // Sibirskij Lesnoj Zurnal (Sib. J. For. Sci.). 2019. N. 5. P. 109–117 (in Russian with English abstract).
© Shishikin A. S., Efimov D. Yu., Murzakmatov R. T., 2019
The results of the assessment of biological resources in the dumps of the Borodinskiy coal mine are given. The habitats of the same ecological capacity are distinguished according to the developed classification and interpretation of space imagery. The habitats are allocated according to the technology of recultivation (4 options), the tendency of the formation of post-technogenic ecosystems (succession – 4) and the age of the dump (formation stage – 4). For each type of habitat, the composition and productivity of grass cover, forest stand, berries, mushrooms, and game are determined. Grass cover is recommended to be used “in the lifetime state”, for example, as honey plants. Haymaking and grazing leads to the degradation of vegetation cover in mountain dumps. The zonal norm of recultivated arable land (with the application of PSP) is reached not earlier than 30 years later. The experiments with planting crops (potatoes, carrots, beets, cucumbers) showed productivity significantly inferior to the zonal norm. Forest plantations (pine, spruce) are developing the most productive first site class and superior zonal norm. The most productive are zoochorny berries plants, while it should be borne in mind that the productivity of sea buckthorn for natural reasons drops rapidly. In addition, it creates a fire-hazardous structure of forest plantations. The yield of edible mushrooms symbiotic with tree species (pine, birch, aspen) is higher than the zonal norm by an order of magnitude. At the same time, in the first 3–4 years entomoparasites do not affect the fruit bodies of mushrooms (there are no worms). The animal population of the dumps is under strong pressure from synanthropic species (raven, forty, black kites), which are attracted by the city dump. At the same time, the productivity of hunting grounds at dumps is 4 times higher than the zonal norm, perhaps this is due to the protection regime of the coalmine. The methodical techniques used and the data obtained with their help allow us to estimate the biological resources of any dumps and predict (modeling) their states. The materials should be applied in assessing the projected impact of mining and the formation of rock dumps on biological resources and planning their further economic use.